“THE THINGS WHICH ARE . . . .” -  THE  PEOPLE OF CHRIST - Revelation 2-3

 THE PERMISSIVE CHURCH AT SARDIS - Revelation 3:1-6

We have considered Jesus’ letters to Ephesus – the miss-placed passion church, to Smyrna – the persecuted church, to Pergamos – the polluted church, and to Thyatira – the perverted church. We have considered each of these churches in terms of their local, personal and prophetic applications. Each of these churches also represent the nature of the church in certain epochs of history: Ephesus – 1st century; Smyrna – AD 100-313; Pergamos – AD 313-590; and Thyatira – AD 590 – 1517+. Now we turn to Jesus’ letter to the church in Sardis. Sardis represents the church during the period of AD 1517 – 1730 and beyond. During this period in history there was a Reformation of the Church. But what we will find is that Jesus finds further problems even after the Reformation to the extent that He determines the Church represented by Sardis is dead.

Revelation 3:1a - “And to the angel of the church in Sardis write,” 

The city of Sardis was located 30 miles southeast of Thyatira and fifty miles east of Smyrna. Sardis was located on a main trade route and was a historically wealthy city. The wealth of the city came primarily from it’s textile and dye industries as well as jewelry trades. The city was full of secret religious societies or mystery cults. There was a prominent Temple of Artemis here which was erected in the 4th century B.C. and there remains ruins of this temple to the present day. The city was known for it’s “loose living.”  The church of this city never rose to prominence.[1]

In A.D. 17 according to the historical Annals of Tacitus (II - 47), “Twelve famous cities of Asia fell by an earthquake in the night . . . . The calamity fell most heavily on the people of Sardis, and it attracted to them the largest share of sympathy. The emperor [Tiberius] promised ten million sesterces, and remitted for five years all they paid to the exchequer.” [2]

The name “Sardis”  means “escaping once,” or “remnant.” [3] We will see in the study of this church historically that a REMNANT rose up to oppose the polluted and perverse church. This uprising known as the Protestant Reformation was successful in addressing many of the problems existing in the church. However, we will also see that the part of the church birthed by the Reformation eventually followed similar corrupt paths than that of their predecessors with even worse results!

Revelation 3:1b - ‘These things says He who has the seven Spirits of God and the seven stars: . . . ” 

JESUS’ IDENTIFICATION

We have been saying that in regard to the seven churches of Revelation the manner in which Jesus identifies Himself to each church is very important. This is particularly true of the church at Sardis.

“the seven Spirits of God” -

As mentioned in our study of the first section of Revelation, the phrase “seven Spirits” is symbolic of the FULLNESS AND FULL WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.  This is based on the passage in Isaiah which states:

  • Isaiah 11:2 - “The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon Him,  The Spirit of wisdom and understanding, The Spirit of counsel and might, The Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord.”

JESUS CHOOSES TO IDENTIFY HIMSELF WITH THE FULLNESS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT AS HE ADDRESSES THIS CHURCH.

THE CHURCH WAS STARTED IN  THE HOLY SPIRIT

The only true picture of what God intended the church to be is found in the Book of Acts. This is what the church of Sardis and the church during the historical period represented by Sardis had forgotten. In Acts we see the intertwining of the Holy Spirit in the lives of the people of the church. In Acts  we are told:

  • Acts 1:4-5,8 - “And being assembled together with them, He commanded them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the Promise of the Father, “which,” He said, “you have heard from Me;5 “for John truly baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”8 “But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.”
  • Acts 2:1-4 - “When the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting.3 Then there appeared to them divided tongues, as of fire, and one sat upon each of them.4 And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.”  [4]
  • Acts 2:47b - “And the Lord added to the church daily those who were being saved.”
  • Acts 5:29-32 - “But Peter and the other apostles answered and said: “We ought to obey God rather than men.30 “The God of our fathers raised up Jesus whom you murdered by hanging on a tree.31 “Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.32 “And we are His witnesses to these things, and so also is the Holy Spirit whom God has given to those who obey Him.”  (Peter and other apostles before Sanhedren.)
  • Acts 6:3 -  “Therefore, brethren, seek out from among you seven men of good reputation, full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business;”
  • Acts 7:51 -  “You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears! You always resist the Holy Spirit; as your fathers did, so do you.”  ( Stephen addressing his accusers.)
  • Acts 8:29,39 - “Then the Spirit said to Philip, “Go near and overtake this chariot.”39 Now when they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught Philip away, so that the eunuch saw him no more; and he went on his way rejoicing.”
  • Acts 9:31 - “ Then the churches throughout all Judea, Galilee, and Samaria had peace and were edified. And walking in the fear of the Lord and in the comfort of the Holy Spirit, they were multiplied.” 
  • Acts 10:19-21,44-45 - “While Peter thought about the vision, the Spirit said to him, “Behold, three men are seeking you.20 “Arise therefore, go down and go with them, doubting nothing; for I have sent them.”21 Then Peter went down to the men who had been sent to him from Cornelius, and said, “Yes, I am he whom you seek. For what reason have you come?”44 While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell upon all those who heard the word.45 And those of the circumcision who believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out on the Gentiles also.”
  • Acts 13:2-4 - “As they ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, “Now separate to Me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.”3 Then, having fasted and prayed, and laid hands on them, they sent them away.4 So, being sent out by the Holy Spirit, they went down to Seleucia, and from there they sailed to Cyprus.”
  • Acts 13:52 - “And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Spirit.”
  • Acts 15:28-29 - “For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things:29 that you abstain from things offered to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality. If you keep yourselves from these, you will do well. Farewell.”
  • Acts 16:6-7 - “Now when they had gone through Phrygia and the region of Galatia, they were forbidden by the Holy Spirit to preach the word in Asia.7 After they had come to Mysia, they tried to go into Bithynia, but the Spirit did not permit them.”
  • Acts 18:5 - “When Silas and Timothy had come from Macedonia, Paul was compelled by the Spirit, and testified to the Jews that Jesus is the Christ.”
  • Acts 19:1-2,6,21 - “And it happened, while Apollos was at Corinth, that Paul, having passed through the upper regions, came to Ephesus. And finding some disciples2 he said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” So they said to him, “We have not so much as heard whether there is a Holy Spirit.”6 And when Paul had laid hands on them, the Holy Spirit came upon them, and they spoke with tongues and prophesied.21 When these things were accomplished, Paul purposed in the Spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.”
  • Acts 20:23,28 -  “except that the Holy Spirit testifies in every city, saying that chains and tribulations await me.28 “Therefore take heed to yourselves and to all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.”  (Paul to the Ephesians.)
  • Acts 21:4,10-11 - “And finding disciples, we stayed there seven days. They told Paul through the Spirit not to go up to Jerusalem.10 And as we stayed many days, a certain prophet named Agabus came down from Judea.11 When he had come to us, he took Paul’s belt, bound his own hands and feet, and said, “Thus says the Holy Spirit, ‘So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man who owns this belt, and deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.’ ”
  • Acts 28:25-28 - “So when they did not agree among themselves, they departed after Paul had said one word: “The Holy Spirit spoke rightly through Isaiah the prophet to our fathers,26 “saying, 1 ‘Go to this people and say: “Hearing you will hear, and shall not understand; And seeing you will see, and not perceive; 27 For the hearts of this people have grown dull. Their ears are hard of hearing, And their eyes they have closed, Lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, Lest they should understand with their hearts and turn, So that I should heal them.” ’ 28 “Therefore let it be known to you that the salvation of God has been sent to the Gentiles, and they will hear it!”

“He who has”-

Notice that JESUS REFERS TO HIMSELF AS THE ONE “WHO HAS” THE SPIRIT. JESUS IDENTIFIES HIMSELF HERE PARTICULARLY AS ONE WHO ADMINISTERS THE OUTPOURING OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. We see this in the following passages:

  • John 16:7 - “Nevertheless I tell you the truth. It is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I depart, I will send Him to you.”
  • Acts 1:4-5 - “And being assembled together with them, He commanded them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the Promise of the Father, “which,” He said, “you have heard from Me;5 “for John truly baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”

Jesus refers to Himself in regards to the Holy Spirit in other places in Revelation:

  • Revelation 5:6 - “And I looked, and behold, in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as though it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent out into all the earth.” 

A. Plummer gives an important comment here:

“The Son hath the Spirit, not as One who receives it from the Father, BUT AS ONE WHO CAN IMPART IT TO MEN. AS MAN HE RECEIVED IT; AS GOD HE GIVES IT. AND A CHURCH SUNK IN SPIRITUAL DEADNESS SPECIALLY NEEDS SUCH A GIFT.” [5] (Emphasis added.)

“and the seven stars” -

  • Revelation 1:20 -  “The mystery of the seven stars which you saw in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands which you saw are the seven churches.”(See 1:16)

IT WOULD APPEAR FROM THIS VERSE AND 3:1 THAT JESUS HAS A REMNANT PASTORAL LEADERSHIP AT SARDIS IN HIS HAND.

AS WE WILL SEE, THE CHURCH OF THE MIDDLE AGES WAS DEAD AND DEADLY, BUT GOD WOULD RAISE UP MEN TO CONFRONT THE APOSTASY IN THE CHURCH AND BRING REVIVAL.

Revelation 3:1c - “I know your works, that you have a name that you are alive, but you are dead.” 

THE CHURCH AT SARDIS MAY HAVE HAD A REPUTATION FOR WORKS ON THE SURFACE, BUT SPIRITUALLY, THEY WERE DEAD.

ONLY SARDIS AND LAODICEA ARE NOT COMMENDED BY JESUS.

HISTORICALLY, THE CHURCH OF SARDIS REPRESENTS THE CHURCH DURING THE YEARS 1517 - 1730 (AND TO THE PRESENT).

“NAME”

It’s interesting to note that the term “name” is derived from the Greek ONOMA (3686).[6] ONOMA is the term from which we get another word, DENOMINATION.

THE CHURCH OF THIS TIME EXPERIENCED A FRESH WIND OF THE SPIRIT (THE REFORMATION),  BUT IT WOULD EVENTUALLY MOVE AWAY FROM IT’S DEPENDENCE ON THE SPIRIT.  WHY? PERHAPS AS VARIOUS GROUPS FORMED IN CHRISTIANITY (I.E. DENOMINATIONS) THE FOCUS ON CHRIST WAS DISTRACTED BY A THE FOCUS ON PRESERVING THE PARTICULAR GROUPS. IN OTHER WORDS, PERHAPS PEOPLE WERE DRAWN TO A PARTY SPIRIT OF BUILDING MEMBERSHIP IN A DENOMINATION RATHER THAN PURELY WINNING SOULS FOR CHRIST. THIS PARTY SPIRIT IS DENOUNCED BY PAUL WHEN HE SAYS:

  • 1 Corinthians 3:1-11 - “And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual people but as to carnal, as to babes in Christ.2 I fed you with milk and not with solid food; for until now you were not able to receive it, and even now you are still not able;3 for you are still carnal. For where there are envy, strife, and divisions among you, are you not carnal and behaving like mere men?4 For when one says, “I am of Paul,” and another, “I am of Apollos,” are you not carnal?5 Who then is Paul, and who is Apollos, but ministers through whom you believed, as the Lord gave to each one?6 I planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the increase.7 So then neither he who plants is anything, nor he who waters, but God who gives the increase.8 Now he who plants and he who waters are one, and each one will receive his own reward according to his own labor.9 For we are God’s fellow workers; you are God’s field, you are God’s building.10 According to the grace of God which was given to me, as a wise master builder I have laid the foundation, and another builds on it. But let each one take heed how he builds on it.11 For no other foundation can anyone lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ.”

Revelation 3:2 - “Be watchful, and strengthen the things which remain, that are ready to die, for I have not found your works perfect before God.” 

That Jesus exhorted those at Sardis to “Be watchful” may imply they weren’t watching for His return.

JESUS EXHORTS THE DEAD CHURCH TO BE “WATCHFUL” -

  • HE COULD BE POINTING THE CHURCH TO WATCH FOR HIS IMMINENT RETURN.

THE AIR OF  EXPECTANCY OF CHRIST IN A CHURCH IS A SIGN OF LIFE.

  • OR HE COULD BE EXHORTING THE CHURCH TO WATCH AGAINST NOT ADHERING TO THE WORD OF GOD AND  BEING PERMISSIVE.

LIKE THE DULLED AND DARKENED SENSES OF A DYING PERSON,  THE SPIRITUAL SENSES OF A DYING CHURCH (THAT HAS FORSAKEN THE SPIRIT AND THE WORD OF GOD), ARE  DULL AND DARK.

At Sardis there were those things which “remain,” there were remnants of a church. BUT IT WAS “READY TO DIE.” THERE WASN’T MUCH LEFT TO THE CHURCH AS FAR AS JESUS COULD SEE.  The works of the Sardis church were not “perfect” or complete before God. The term “perfect” is translated from the Greek PLEROO (4137) and literally means “to fill” or “complete” (See Colossians 2:10).

THERE WAS SOMETHING MISSING IN THIS CHURCH.

HISTORICALLY WE HAVE SEEN:

  • HOW THE CHURCH OF THE MIDDLE AGES HAD BECOME  A HYBRID OR PSUEDO CHURCH BECAUSE IT HAD DEPARTED FROM SPIRIT-GIVEN SCRIPTURAL GUIDELINES AND ADDED MAN-MADE TRADITIONS NOT BASED ON SCRIPTURE BUT ON BABYLONIAN PAGAN RELIGION.
  • IT HAD ALSO BECOME IMMORAL TO THE EXTREME. ADULTERY, FORNICATION, RAPE, ILLIGITIMACY, PROSTITUTION ARE ALL WELL DOCUMENTED AS HAVING EXISTED IN WIDESPREAD AMOUNTS IN THE CHURCH HIERARCHY. [7]

In 904 to 967 A.D. Sergius the III became pope and introduced a period referred to historically as “The Rule of Harlots.” Sergius brought his mistress Marozia and her mother Theodora publicly into the papal palace and obscenely mocked the religious environment in which they lived and the life of celibacy Sergius had vowed to. Sergius was succeeded by his grandson John the 10th and he was killed in his bed in the papal palace while committing adultery. “John the XII (955-64) . . . became pope at age 16, and ran a harem in the Lateran Palace, and lived a life of evil that passes imagination, even toasting the devil in front of St. Peter’s altar. Spiritual leader of the Church for eight years, John XII slept with his mother and any other woman he could get his hands on. Women were warned not to venture into St. John Lateran church.”[8]

  • BECAUSE OF THIS THE CHURCH WAS READY TO DIE. WITH ALL THE IMMORALITY AND EXTRABIBLICAL ADDITIONS IN THE CHURCH, IT WAS CEASING TO BE WHAT GOD ORIGINALLY INTENDED IT TO BE.

AS THE CHURCH CONTINUED IT WAS IN DANGER OF COMPLETELY DEPARTING FROM IT’S GOD ORDAINED PURPOSE - THE SYMPTOM OF THIS DEADLY CONDITION WAS PERMISSIVENESS.

WHY WAS THE CHURCH DEAD?

THE CHURCH WAS DEAD BECAUSE IT LACKED THE SPIRIT, IT WAS WORKING IN IT’S OWN STRENGTH NOT THE SPIRIT’S EMPOWERMENT.

BUT WHY HAD THE CHURCH LEFT THE SPIRIT BEHIND?

Perhaps the church had become OVERCONFIDENT.

The city of Sardis had changed hands a number of times  historically (Lydian, Persian, Greek, and Roman conquerors).[9]   John Walvoord gives an important historical insight concerning this church when he writes, “The previous history of Sardis should have warned them concerning the possibility of sudden and unexpected judgment. Although the situation of the city was ideal for defense, as it stood high above the valley of Hermus and was surrounded by deep cliffs almost impossible to scale, Sardis had twice fallen because of OVERCONFIDENCE and failure to watch. In 549 B.C. the Persian King Cyrus had ended the rule of Croesus by scaling the cliffs under the cover of darkness. In 214 B.C. the armies of Antiochus the Great (III) captured the city by the same method. The city of Sardis at the time it received this letter was in fact in a period of decline as compared to its former glory, having been reduced by these invasions. The spiritual history of the church was to correspond  to the political history of the city. Their works are also declared to be not perfect, literally, ‘not fulfilled,’ that is, not achieving the full extent of the will of God. Their works were short either in motive or in execution, and they are exhorted to fill to the full the opportunity for service and testimony.” [10]

JUST AS THE CITY OF SARDIS PRESUMED ON THE SAFETY OF IT’S LOCATION, THE SARDIS CHURCH PRESUMED ON IT’S OWN STATUS. THE PERMISSIVENESS THAT CREPT INTO THE CHURCH WAS BASED ON PRESUMPTION AND TOLERATION.

As the church of Sardis progressed through history, an emphasis on higher education led to an exposure to those who prided themselves on RATIONAL THINKING RATHER THAN KNOWLEDGE OF GOD’S WORD AND WALKING IN THE SPIRIT.

 WITHOUT THE SPIRIT LEADING AND GOD’S WORD GUIDING ANYTHING GOES!

The result has been a liberalizing of Christianity until in recent times certain parts of the church are so permissive that they accept and marry homosexuals and lesbians, turn a rationalizing blind eye to sin, and incorporate pagan religious practices in their worship services.

Revelation 3:3a - “Remember therefore how you have received and heard; hold fast and repent.” 

THE PRESCRIPTION OF JESUS FOR A DEAD CHURCH

1.) REMEMBER HOW YOU RECEIVED AND HEARD

GET BACK TO THE WORD OF GOD:

  • 1 Thessalonians 2:13 - “For this reason we also thank God without ceasing, because when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you welcomed it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which also effectively works in you who believe.”

THE EARLY CHURCH WAS STRONG BECAUSE IT WAS ATTENTIVE TO GOD’S WORD AND WAS EMPOWERED AND LED BY THE HOLY SPIRIT. THE CHURCH IS NOTHING WITHOUT THE HOLY SPIRIT. 

2.) HOLD FAST

The phrase “Hold fast” is one Greek term - TERESIS (5084). TERESIS is translated “hold, custody” in Acts 4:3,  and  “prison” in Acts 5:18. TERESIS  signifies first  “a watching, guarding”; and therefore, “imprisonment, ward” (from tereo, “to watch, keep”). TERESIS can also mean “a keeping,” as of commandments, 1 Cor. 7:19. [11]

SO WHEN WE SEE THIS TERM USED BY JESUS HERE IT’S AS THOUGH HE WERE SAYING,

“LET YOUR MIND AND HEART KEEP GOD’S WORD LIKE A JAILOR WHO WILL NOT ALLOW A PRISONER TO FLEE.” 

3.) REPENT

TURN FROM THOSE THINGS WHICH DISPLEASE GOD TO GOD. STOP TRYING TO LIVE IN YOUR OWN STRENGTH AND WISDOM APART FROM THE DIRECTION AND POWER OF THE SPIRIT.

Revelation 3:3b “Therefore if you will not watch, I will come upon you as a thief, and you will not know what hour I will come upon you.” 

Unfortunately, the impact of the Protestant Reformation did not last and even the Protestant church turned from a reliance on the Spirit and God’s Word to Liberal Neo Orthodox and Humanistic beliefs. Many of those in the churches which trace their origins to the Protestant Reformation no longer accept Jesus as a historical Person, the Virgin Birth, Miracles, The Resurrection of Jesus, The Return or 2nd Coming of Jesus, the Inerrancy of Scripture, and much more.  The Jesus Seminar, a group of liberal Protestant scholars have taken to critique the Gospels as to what in their opinion Jesus actually said. They put together a color coded Bible with the things they don’t believe Jesus said in black, the things he might have said in gray and the thing they believe he said definitely in red. I say “thing” because they have assessed that about the only  thing said that can definitely be attributed to Jesus is “It is more blessed to give than to receive.” They concluded that Jesus did not say 82% of the words attributed to Him in the gospels, 18% of the words attributed to Him are doubtful and only 2% of that attributed to Him is authentic.  In the book The Case For Christ by Lee Strobel, he interviews Gregory A. Boyd who has challenged the findings of the Jesus Seminar. In the interview Boyd states that the presuppositions of those in the Jesus Seminar group colored their findings. The scholars came from a liberal naturalistic background which denies the possibility of miracles and so found a Jesus in the gospels who is not supernatural but merely human. [12] 

Jesus warns that those in the church who refuse to watch for His Coming will be unprepared for Him when He does come. It is very doubtful that the liberal scholars of today will be ready when Jesus returns!

THE UNFORTUNATE CYCLE OF RELIGION

As we look at the church historically we see an unfortunate cycle of degeneration.  If you were to go to Switzerland today and go to one of the great cathedrals established during the Reformation by Calvin or Zwingle, you would see a beautiful building with perfect acoustics and a seating capacity in the thousands. But if you were to go to a service, the attendance would be in the twenties. The churches of the Reformation are for the most part dead.

CHURCHES DIE WHEN THEY ARE BASED ON RELIGION INSTEAD OF RELATIONSHIP.

The cycle of religious decline is as follows:

1.) A MAN - God calls a man to perform a task.

2.) MINISTRY - The man answers the call of God on his life and a ministry develops in the Spirit.

3.) MOVEMENT - God blesses the ministry and it spreads to a movement as God continues to move.  The simplicity of God’s plan in the Spirit begins to effect people and others are called to follow.

4.) MACHINERY - As the movement grows programs to handle the growth are put into place to perpetuate and facilitate the movement. Confidence in God by faith is slowly replaced by confidence in the programs “we” can devise to get the job done. Programs replace the Spirit.

5.) MONUMENTS - Monuments are erected to commemorate the history of the initial man and the notable events of the movement. The buildings get bigger and statues and plaques and busts are put in place. The focus is no longer on what God plans to do, but on what God has done.

6.) MAUSELEUMS - Focus on the past works results in playing it safe to preserve what has been gained. What we “have” becomes more important than what God wants to “do.”  The fear of taking risks in faith, the preservation mentality results in the departure of the Spirit to others who will be free to be used and not in bondage to things.

“REMEMBER” = BACK TO BASICS

Jesus instructed those at Sardis to “remember therefore  how they had receive and heard” in other words GET BACK TO BASICS, TO THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE FAITH. We’ve seen the negative cycle of religion and also how according to Acts the church was birthed, guided, and empowered by the Spirit. For the church to survive it needs to be in tune with the Spirit. Let’s take a look at the Spirit’s primary tool for the church, His Word.

THE BIBLE IS INSPIRED

The Bible is “inspired” (Greek - THEOPNEUSTOS) which literally means “God-spirited” or “God-breathed-out.”  What is meant by the inspiration of the Bible is that THE WORD OF GOD IS FROM GOD NOT MEN. [13]

Inspiration of the Scriptures is taught in such verses as:

  • 1 Corinthians 14:37 - “If anyone thinks himself to be a pr
  • 1 Thessalonians 2:13 - “For this reason we also thank God without ceasing, because when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you welcomed it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which also effectively works in you who believe.”
  • 2 Timothy 3:16-17 - “ All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness,17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.”
  • 2 Peter 1:21 - “for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.”

In 2 Peter 1:21 we see a beautiful picture of what inspiration means. The word “moved” IS A TRANSLATION OF THE Greek term PHERO (5342). PHERO  means “to bear, carry,”  or “ to carry along.”  This same word is used in Acts:

  • Acts 27:15,17 - “So when the ship was caught, and could not head into the wind, we let her drive.17 When they had taken it on board, they used cables to undergird the ship; and fearing lest they should run aground on the Syrtis Sands, they struck sail and so were driven.”

JUST AS WIND DRIVES A SHIP BY BLOWING INTO IT’S SAILS, THE SPIRIT “DROVE” THE MEN WHO WROTE THE SCRIPTURE.

THE BIBLE IS INERRANT

Since the trustworthiness of the Bible is the basis of  most of what we know about God it is important that  we understand that the Bible is without error or INERRANT.

WHAT IS INERRANCY?

“Inerrancy” simply means that THE BIBLE IS WHOLLY TRUE.

  • “Inerrancy means that when all facts are known, the Scriptures in their original autographs and properly interpreted will be shown to be wholly true in everything they teach, whether that teaching has to do with doctrine, history, science, geography, geology, or other disciplines or knowledge.”
  • “WHAT SCRIPTURE SAYS, GOD SAYS - THROUGH HUMAN AGENTS AND WITHOUT ERROR.”

WHY SHOULD WE BELIEVE IN INERRANCY?[14]

1.) THE BIBLE TEACHES INERRANCY -

THE BIBLE IS ABLE TO MAKE US COMPLETE -

  • 2 Timothy 3:16-17 - “ All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness,17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.”

THE BIBLE IS SPOKEN OF AS SYNONYMOUS WITH THE VOICE OF GOD 

  • Matthew 19:4-5 - “And He answered and said to them, “Have you not read that He who made them at the beginning ‘made them male and female,’5 “and said, ‘For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh’?”
  • Acts 4:24-25 - “So when they heard that, they raised their voice to God with one accord and said: “Lord, You are God, who made heaven and earth and the sea, and all that is in them,25 “who by the mouth of Your servant David have said: 1 ‘Why did the nations rage, And the people plot vain things?”
  • Acts 13:34-35 -  “And that He raised Him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, He has spoken thus: ‘I will give you the sure mercies of David.’ 35 “Therefore He also says in another Psalm: ‘You will not allow Your Holy One to see corruption.’”
  • Hebrews 3:7-8 - 7 Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says: 1 “Today, if you will hear His voice, 8 Do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, In the day of trial in the wilderness,”

THE NEW TESTAMENT IS ON AN EQUALLY  INERRANT  LEVEL WITH THE OLD TESTAMENT -

  • 1 Thessalonians 2:13 - “For this reason we also thank God without ceasing, because when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you welcomed it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which also effectively works in you who believe.”
  • 2 Peter 3:15-16 - “and consider that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation—as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you,16 as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures.”

JESUS BELIEVED IN THE INERRANCY OF THE BIBLE

  • Matthew 5:17 -  “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill.”
  • Matthew 24:35 -  “Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away.”
  • Matthew 26:53-54 -  “Or do you think that I cannot now pray to My Father, and He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of angels?54 “How then could the Scriptures be fulfilled, that it must happen thus?”
  • Mark 14:27 - “Then Jesus said to them, “All of you will be made to stumble because of Me this night, for it is written: 1 ‘I will strike the Shepherd, And the sheep will be scattered.’”
  • Luke 20:37-38 -  “But even Moses showed in the burning bush passage that the dead are raised, when he called the Lord ‘the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’38 “For He is not the God of the dead but of the living, for all live to Him.”
  • John 5:39 -  “You search the Scriptures, for in them you think you have eternal life; and these are they which testify of Me.”

GREAT PEOPLE OF THE CHURCH HAVE BELEIVED THE BIBLE INERRANT

  • “I have learned to hold the Scriptures alone inerrant.” - Augustine in a letter to Jerome.
  • “Do not follow my writings as Holy Scripture. When you find in Holy Scripture anything you did not believe before, believe it without doubt; but in my writings, you should hold nothing for certain.” - Augustine in his “Preface to the Treatise on the Trinity.”
  • “I beg and faithfully warn every pious Christian not to stumble at the simplicity of the language and stories that will often meet him there. He should not doubt that, however simple they may seem, these are the very words, works, judgments, and deeds of the high majesty, power, and wisdom of God.” -Martin Luther regarding the Old Testament.
  • The Scriptures, although they also were written by men, are not of men nor from men, but from God.” - Martin Luther
  • “This is a principle which distinguishes our religion from all others, that we know that God has spoken to us, and are fully convinced that the prophets did not speak at their own suggestion, but that, being organs of the Holy Spirit, they only uttered what they had been commissioned from heaven to declare. Whoever then wishes to profit in the Scriptures, let him, first of all, lay down this as a settled point, that the Law and the Prophets are not a doctrine delivered according to the will and pleasure of men, but dictated by the Holy Spirit . . . . We owe to the Scripture the same reverence which we own to God; because it has proceeded from him alone, and has nothing belonging to man mixed with it.”- John Calvin
  • “The bible is without mistake because it is God’s inspired Word and . . . God cannot lie or contradict himself.” Francis Schaeffer
  • Only truth can be authoritative; only an inerrant Bible can be used . . . in the way that God means Scripture to be used. . . . Its text is word for word God-given; its message is an organic unity, the infallible Word of an infallible God, a web of revealed truths centered upon Christ.”  - J.I. Packer

THE CHARACTER OF GOD DEMANDS AN INERRANT BIBLE

  • Psalm 119:160 - “ The entirety of Your word is truth, And every one of Your righteous judgments endures forever.”
  • Proverbs 30:5 - “Every word of God is pure [lit. “FLAWLESS”}; He is a shield to those who put their trust in Him.”
  • Titus 1:2 - “in hope of eternal life which God, who cannot lie, promised before time began,”
  • Hebrews 6:18 - “that by two immutable things, in which it is impossible for God to lie, we might have strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold of the hope set before us.”

HOW RELIABLE IS THE BIBLE?

In an issue of the Christian Research Newsletter, Hank Hanegraaff gives the following acronym to help comprehend and grasp that the Bible is reliable [15]:

M - MANUSCRIPTS - While we  do not possess the original manuscripts penned by the Scripture writers, we can test the reliability of the copies of the original manuscripts. The question asked here is:  How can we test the copies to see if they are an accurate representation of the originals? We do this by examining the Bibliographic, Eyewitness, and External evidence.

The Bibliographic test here considers the quantity of manuscripts and manuscript fragments as well as the time span between when the copy was made of the original. The more copies we have the more we can compare to see if there are deviations that effect the message. If there are few or inconsequential deviations it tells us reliability is high. The closer in time a copy is made of the original the less likely a serious error could have been made.

The Bible has stronger Bibliographic support than  any other classical work, e.g. Homer, Tacitus, Pliny, and Aristophanes. There are 14,000 manuscripts and fragments of the Old Testament, the oldest of which date to 250 B.C. Since the Old Testament was completed in 430 B.C. the trustworthiness of the Old Testament is very high.  There are 5300 manuscripts and fragments of the New Testament. The time between the original and the earliest copies is an incredible 60 years!

The Eyewitness considers the credentials of the authors. Moses was an eyewitness of the exodus from Egypt and the miraculous events which took place before, during and after that event. Luke gathered eyewitness accounts in his gospel and Acts (Luke 1:1-3). Peter was an eyewitness (2 Peter 1:16). John was an eyewitness (1 John 1:1-4). The Bible is not based on hearsay but on firsthand accounts.

The External evidence assesses the historical, geographical, and cultural reliability of the records of Scripture. The Bible is unique to other religious writings in that it makes reference to actual events of history which can be proven true or false. The Bible’s accuracy in historical, geographical and cultural areas has never been tainted. When possible, all events described in the Bible have been confirmed by secular history. Of course, since the Bible is inspired by God, we should the measure the accuracy of other documents against it and not vice versa. Even secular scholars and critics of the Bible have to admit the Bible is a reliable historical document.

A - ARCHEOLOGY - The Bible has never been disproved by any archeological evidence unearthed.  Archeologists such as Sir William Ramsey, ( who set out to disprove the Bile via archeological evidence) have actually been converted as they have seen the accuracy of the Bible substantiated over and over again. 

P - PROPHECY - The Bible’s predictive qualities are unparalleled.  For example, the book of Daniel which was written before 530 B.C accurately predicts the progression of the Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Greek and Roman empires. It also predicts to the day the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem more than 500 years in advance (See the Seventy Weeks of Daniel prophecy in Daniel 9). Micah, written in the 8th century B.C. accurately predicts the birthplace of Jesus (Micah 5:2). Isaiah also written in the 8th century predicts the crucifixion and sacrificial atonement of Jesus (Isaiah 53). Space does not permit us to consider this area of proof but suffice it to say that the Bible is like no other book in regards to prophecy because in reality, it’s Author is like no other!

S - STATISTICAL PROBABILITY - When you look at the prophecies of the Bible the probability that they could have occurred by chance is extremely unlikely.  Some of the prophecies are given in such great detail that it would be extremely improbable that they were directed by coincidence. For example, Ezekiel prophesied that the city of Tyre would be opposed by many nations (Ezekiel 26:3); it’s walls and towers would be destroyed (Ezekiel 26:4); and that it would be leveled to the ground and the rubble thrown into the sea (Ezekiel 26:12). In Isaiah 45:1-4, the means by which Cyrus would defeat Babylon is given, (i.e. “To open before him the double doors, So that the gates will not be shut . . . I will break in pieces the gates of bronze . . . .” Cyrus actually was able to enter the city of Babylon by the gates of the city which were left unlocked!) Hank Hanegraaff states,  “The Bible was written over a span of 1500 years by forty different human authors on three continents (Africa, Asia, and Europe) in three different languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek), on hundreds of subjects. And yet there is on consistent, noncontradictory theme that runs through it all: God’s redemption of humankind. Clearly, statistical probability is a powerful indicator of the trustworthiness of Scripture.”

Revelation 3:4 -  “You have a few names even in Sardis who have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy.”  

There is a REMNANT in Sardis as in all churches and all periods of  church history. God never leaves Himself without His faithful remnant. We see this in the following examples:

  • NOAH IN A WICKED WORLD -  Genesis 6:5–14.
  • AMONGST SINFUL ISRAEL -  Jeremiah 31:7
  • EVEN WHEN ALL SEEMS LOST -  Romans 11:1–5.  [16]

On October 31st, 1517 Martin Luther nailed his Ninety Five Theses to the Wittenburg church door. These Ninety Five Theses denounced the practice of indulgences used by the Roman Catholic Church and formerly challenged the authority of Rome and offered to debate the issues. THIS MARKS THE START OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION.

Luther’s views spread throughout Europe via the printing press and word of mouth. The pope demanded that Luther submit to his authority but Luther would not. After three years of debates and attempts to manipulate Luther to submit to Rome, in June of 1520 the church issued a decree of excommunication to Luther. Luther was condemned by the pope, his books were ordered to be burned. But the edict of the pope was mostly ignored and instead many chose to burn the popes edict of excommunication. Six months later, on December 10th of 1520, Luther defied the pope’s authority by publicly burning the write of excommunication. [17]

In 1521 at the city of Worms,  Luther appeared before an assembly called a “Diet.” At this famous Diet of Worms, Luther had been led to believe he would debate the issues at hand. Instead he walked into an threatening assembly of church leaders looking to condemn him. On a table in the center of the assembly were his writings. Two questions were posed to Luther: 1.) “Are these your works?”; and 2.) “Will you recant?” Luther acknowledged that the works on the table were his, (all of which denounced the pope and the unscriptural practices in the church at that time.) To the second question Luther attempted to offer debate but was refused. He was given another day to respond to the question.

Luther’s response the next day to the question of recanting his views have become a part of history He stated the following:

“You ask for a simple answer, here it is: Unless you can convince me by scripture and not by popes or councils which have often contradicted each other; Unless I am so convinced I am wrong, I am bound to my beliefs by the text of the bible. My conscience is captive to the word of God. To go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Therefore I cannot and will not recant. Here I stand, I can do no other. god help me. Amen.” [18]

Other reformers of not were John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingle of Switzerland and John Knox of Scotland. The Reformation led to establishing churches who held to four primary beliefs:

1.) SOLA FIDE - Justification by grace through faith alone in Christ alone.

2.) UNIVERSAL PRIESTHOOD OF BELIEVERS

3.) SOLA SCRIPTURA - The Bible is the only authority for the church and tradition and all other practices must be supportable by the Word of God.

4.) THE RIGHT OF PRIVATE JUDGMENT - Every believer has the right to study and interpret the Bible for themselves through the guidance of the Holy Spirit. [19]

Revelation 3:5 -  “He who overcomes shall be clothed in white garments, and I will not blot out his name from the Book of Life; but I will confess his name before My Father and before His angels.” 

Those who overcome by faith ( 1John 5:4) will be “clothed in the white garments” of Christ’s holiness.

What does blotting one’s name from the Book of Life mean? This is a difficult and controversial passage as it appears to conflict with the security of the believer stated in such passages as: John 10:28-29 and Romans 8:35-39.

  • John 10:28-29 -  “And I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; neither shall anyone snatch them out of My hand.29 “My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of My Father’s hand.”
  • Romans 8:35-39 - “Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?36 As it is written:  “For Your sake we are killed all day long; We are accounted as sheep for the slaughter.” 37 Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us.38 For I am persuaded that neither death nor life, nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things present nor things to come,39 nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.”

THE BOOK OF LIFE

The Bible says the following about God’s book of life:

  • Exodus 32:33 - “And the Lord said to Moses, “Whoever has sinned against Me, I will blot him out of My book.”  (See also Psalm 69:28).
  • Daniel 12:1 - “At that time Michael shall stand up, 1 The great prince who stands watch over the sons of your people; And there shall be a time of trouble, Such as never was since there was a nation, Even to that time. And at that time your people shall be delivered, Every one who is found written in the book.”
  • Luke 10:20 - “Nevertheless do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rather rejoice because your names are written in heaven.”
  • Philippians 4:3 - “And I urge you also, true companion, help these women who labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the Book of Life.”
  • Hebrews 12:23 - “to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are registered in heaven, to God the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect,”
  • Revelation 13:8 - “All who dwell on the earth will worship him, whose names have not been written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.”
  • Revelation 17:8 - “The beast that you saw was, and is not, and will ascend out of the bottomless pit and go to perdition. And those who dwell on the earth will marvel, whose names are not written in the Book of Life from the foundation of the world, when they see the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.”
  • Revelation 20:12 - “And I saw the dead, small and great, standing before God, and books were opened. And another book was opened, which is the Book of Life. And the dead were judged according to their works, by the things which were written in the books.”

  • Revelation 21:27 - “But there shall by no means enter it anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life.”
  • Revelation 22:19 - “and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.”

Henry Morris comments in regards to this question: “This is a controversial passage, but a possible harmonization can be made by noting the special circumstances of infants who die before the age of ‘accountability.’ The book of life, as its very name implies, probably contains the names of all those for whom Christ died - in other words, all who have ever been conceived in the womb, and who thus have received God’s created spirit of life. Since Christ died for the sin inherent in every person conceived, a child who dies before becoming a deliberate and conscious sinner does not need to be ‘saved’ from sin, since he has never sinned, and since Christ has made propitiation for his innate sin. When a child does become a conscious sinner, however, he thenceforth is lost and needs to be saved; he needs to be ‘born again.’ His name is still inscribed in the book of life, because he is still living and may, before he dies, trust Christ to save him and give him everlasting life. If he continues in his sin and his unrepentant, unforgiven state until death, however, then his name will finally and irrevocably be blotted out of the book of life, and he will experience a second death (Revelation 20:14) as well as physical death.” [20]

Chuck Smith states: “What does Jesus mean about blotting names out of the Book of Life? He means just that. Don’t think I’m going to take away from this book. For in the final chapter it says that if any man shall take away from this book, his name will be taken out of the book of Life (Revelation 22:19). I don’t want mine blotted out! You say, ‘What did He mean by that?’ I don’t know but I won’t try to explain it away. ‘He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches’ (Revelation 3:6).”[21]

WHAT IS IMPORTANT IS THAT OUR NAME IS WRITTEN IN THE BOOK OF LIFE AND THAT OUR LORD JESUS CONFESSES BEFORE THE FATHER THAT IT IS!

Revelation 3:6 - “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.” ’ 

Martin Luther's Definition of Faith:

An excerpt from "An Introduction to St. Paul's Letter to the Romans,"

 Luther's German Bible of 1522 by Martin Luther, 1483-1546

Translated by Rev. Robert E. Smith from DR. MARTIN LUTHER'S VERMISCHTE DEUTSCHE SCHRIFTEN. Johann K. Irmischer, ed. Vol. 63 (Erlangen: Heyder and Zimmer, 1854), pp.124-125. [EA 63:124-125] August 1994

“Faith is not what some people think it is. Their human dream is a delusion. Because they observe that faith is not followed by good works or a better life, they fall into error, even though they speak and hear much about faith. ``Faith is not enough,'' they say, ``You must do good works, you must be pious to be saved.'' They think that, when you hear the gospel, you start working, creating by your own strength a thankful heart which says, ``I believe.'' That is what they think true faith is. But, because this is a human idea, a dream, the heart never learns anything from it, so it does nothing and reform doesn't come from this `faith,' either. Instead, faith is God's work in us, that changes us and gives new birth from God. (John 1:13). It kills the Old Adam and makes us completely different people. It changes our hearts, our spirits, our thoughts and all our powers. It brings the Holy Spirit with it. Yes, it is a living, creative, active and powerful thing, this faith. Faith cannot help doing good works constantly. It doesn't stop to ask if good works ought to be done, but before anyone asks, it already has done them and continues to do them without ceasing. Anyone who does not do good works in this manner is an unbeliever. He stumbles around and looks for faith and good works, even though he does not know what faith or good works are. Yet he gossips and chatters about faith and good works with many words. Faith is a living, bold trust in God's grace, so certain of God's favor that it would risk death a thousand times trusting in it. Such confidence and knowledge of God's grace makes you happy, joyful and bold in your relationship to God and all creatures. The Holy Spirit makes this happen through faith. Because of it, you freely, willingly and joyfully do good to everyone, serve everyone, suffer all kinds of things, love and praise the God who has shown you such grace. Thus, it is just as impossible to separate faith and works as it is to separate heat and light from fire! Therefore, watch out for your own false ideas and guard against good-for-nothing gossips, who think they're smart enough to define faith and works, but really are the greatest of fools. Ask God to work faith in you, or you will remain forever without faith, no matter what you wish, say or can do.”[22]

How can a church break the cycle of religion? By understanding how the church is supposed to work:

“The Spirit of God working through the Word of God

to change the people of God.” - Chuck Smith  [23]


[1] John F. Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ, Moody  Press: Chicago, 1966, p. 78

[2] H.D. M. Spence and Joseph S. Exell, ed., A. Plummer,  The Pulpit Commentary - The Revelation, MacDonald Pub. Co.: Mclean, Virginia, p. 106

[3] Dr. Raul Ries, Hear What The Spirit Is Saying, Logos Media Group: diamond Bar, CA, 1993, p. 87

[4]The Holy Bible, New King James Version, (Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, Inc.) 1982.

[5] H.D. M. Spence and Joseph S. Exell, ed., A. Plummer,  The Pulpit Commentary - The Revelation, MacDonald Pub. Co.: Mclean, Virginia, p. 107

[6]W.E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger and William White, Vine’s complete expository dictionary of Old and New Testament words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[7] Dave Hunt, A woman Rides The Beast, Harvest House  Pub.: Eugene, Oregon, 1994, pp. 160-176

[8] Dave Hunt, Ibid., p. 166

[9] H.D. M. Spence and Joseph S. Exell, ed., A. Plummer,  The Pulpit Commentary - The Revelation, MacDonald Pub. Co.: Mclean, Virginia, p. 106

[10] John Walvoord, Ibid., p. 80-81

[11]W.E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger and William White, Vine’s complete expository dictionary of Old and New Testament words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[12] Lee Strobel, the Case For Christ, Zondervan Pub. House: Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1998, pp. 111-127

[13] Harold Lindsell, the Battle For The Bible, Zondervan Pub.: Grand Rapids, MI, 1976, p. 34

[14] James Montgomery Boice, Does Inerrancy Matter? International Council on biblical Inerrancy Oakland, CA, 1979, p. 15-20

[15] Hank Hanegraaff, Christain Research Newsletter, Volume 5, Issue 4, July/September, 1992, p.3

[16]Ken Anderson; illustrated by John Hayes, Where to find it in the Bible [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996 by Ken Anderson.

[17] Marvin L. Galbreath, 20 Centuries of Christianity ,Light and Life Press: Winona Lake, Indiana, 1970, p. 30-31

[18] Louis De Rochment, Producer, Martin Luther, (Video) Lutheran Film Associates Distributed by Vision Video, Inc. P.O. box 540, Worcester. PA 19490, no date given.

[19] Marvin L. Galbreath, Ibid., p. 32

[20] Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Pub., Inc. : Wheaton, IL and Creation-Life Pub. :San Diego, CA, 1983, p. 69

[21] Chuck Smith What The World Is Coming To, The Word For Today: Costa Mesa, CA 1993, p. 40

[22] This text was translated for Project Wittenberg by Rev. Robert E. Smith and is in the public domain. You may freely distribute, copy or print this text. Please direct any comments or suggestions to: Rev. Robert E. Smith Walther Library Concordia Theological Seminary E-mail: CFWLibrary@CRF.CUIS.EDU Surface Mail: 6600 N. Clinton St., Ft. Wayne, IN 46825 USA Phone: (219) 481-2123 Fax: (219) 481-2126

[23] Chuck Smith, Harvest,Chosen Books Fleming H. Revell Co.: Old Tappen, New Jersey, 1987, p. 189.